Chapter 3: Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

Chapter 3: Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
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Chapter Outline:

3.0 Introduction
3.1 Purpose of the AAA
3.2 Local AAA Authentication
3.3 Server-Based AAA
3.4 Server-Based AAA Authentication
3.5 Server-Based Authorization and Accounting
3.6 Summary

Section 3.1: Purpose of the AAA

Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:

  • Explain why AAA is critical to network security.
  • Describe the characteristics of AAA.

Topic 3.1.1: AAA Overview

Authentication without AAA

Telnet is Vulnerable to Brute-Force Attacks

AAA Components

Topic 3.1.2: AAA Characteristics

Authentication Modes

Local AAA Authentication

Server-Based AAA Authentication

Authorization

AAA Authorization

Accounting

  • Types of accounting information:
    • Network
    • Connection
    • EXEC
    • System
    • Command
    • Resource

AAA Accounting

Activity – Indentify the Characteristics of AAA

Section 3.2: Local AAA Authentication

Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:

  • Configure AAA authentication, using the CLI, to validate users against a local database.
  • Troubleshoot AAA authentication that validates users against a local database.

Topic 3.2.1: Configuring Local AAA Authentication with CLI

Authenticating Administrative Access

  1. Add usernames and passwords to the local router database for users that need administrative access to the router.
  2. Enable AAA globally on the router.
  3. Configure AAA parameters on the router.
  4. Confirm and troubleshoot the AAA configuration.

Authentication Methods

Default and Named Methods

Example Local AAA Authentication

Fine-Tuning the Authentication Configuration

Command Syntax

Display Locked Out Users

Show Unique ID of a Session

Topic 3.2.2: Troubleshooting Local AAA Authentication

Debug Options

Debug Local AAA Authentication

Debugging AAA Authentication

Understanding Debug Output

Section 3.3: Server-Based AAA

Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:

  • Describe the benefits of server-based AAA.
  • Compare the TACACS+ and RADIUS authentication protocols.

Topic 3.3.1: Server-Based AAA Characteristics

Comparing Local AAA and Server-Based AAA Implementations

Local authentication:

  1. User establishes a connection with the router.
  2. Router prompts the user for a username and password, authentication the user using a local database.

Server-based authentication:

  1. User establishes a connection with the router.
  2. Router prompts the user for a username and password.
  3. Router passes the username and password to the Cisco Secure ACS (server or engine)
  4. The Cisco Secure ACS authenticates the user.

Introducing Cisco Secure Access Control System

Topic 3.3.2: Server-Based AAA Communication Protocols

Introducing TACACS+ and RADIUS

TACACS+ Authentication

TACACS+ Authentication Process

RADIUS Authentication

RADIUS Authentication Process

Integration of TACACS+ and ACS

Cisco Secure ACS

Integration of AAA with Active Directory

Section 3.4: Server-Based AAA Authentication

Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:

  • Configure server-based AAA authentication, using the CLI, on Cisco routers.
  • Troubleshoot server-based AAA authentication.

Topic 3.4.1: Configuring Server-Based Authentication with CLI

Steps for Configuring Server-Based AAA Authentication with CLI

  1. Enable AAA.
  2. Specify the IP address of the ACS server.
  3. Configure the secret key.
  4. Configure authentication to use either the RADIUS or TACACS+ server.

Configuring the CLI with TACACS+ Servers

Server-Based AAA Reference Topology

Configure a AAA TACACS+ Server

Configuring the CLI for RADIUS Servers

Configure a AAA RADIUS Server

Configure Authentication to Use the AAA Server

Command Syntax

Configure Server-Based AAA Authentication

Topic 3.4.2: Troubleshooting Server-Based AAA Authentication

Monitoring Authentication Traffic

Troubleshooting Server-Based AAA Authentication

Debugging TACACS+ and RADIUS

Troubleshooting RADIUS

Troubleshooting TACACS+

AAA Server-Based Authentication Success

AAA Server-Based Authentication Failure

Section 3.5: Server-Based AAA Authorization and Accounting

Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:

  • Configure server-based AAA authorization.
  • Configure server-based AAA accounting.
  • Explain the functions of 802.1x components.

Topic 3.5.1: Configuring Server-Based AAA Authorization

Introduction to Server-Based AAA Authorization

  • Authentication vs. Authorization
    • Authentication ensures a device or end-user is legitimate
    • Authorization allows or disallows authenticated users access to certain areas and programs on the network.
  • TACACS+ vs. RADIUS
    • TACACS+ separates authentication from authorization
    • RADIUS does not separate authentication from authorization

AAA Authorization Configuration with CLI

Command Syntax

Authorization Method Lists

Example AAA Authorization

Topic 3.5.2: Configuring Server-Based AAA Accounting

Introduction to Server-Based AAA Accounting

AAA Accounting Configuration with CLI

Command Syntax

Accounting Method Lists

Example AAA Accounting

Topic 3.5.3: 802.1X Authentication

Security Using 802.1X Port-Based Authentication

802.1X Roles

802.1X Message Exchange

802.1X Port Authorization State

Command Syntax for dot1x port-control

Configuring 802.1X

Section 3.6: Summary

Chapter Objectives:

  • Explain how AAA is used to secure a network.
  • Implement AAA authentication that validates users against a local database.
  • Implement server-based AAA authentication using TACACS+ and RADIUS protocols.
  • Configure server-based AAA authorization and accounting.

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